Category: System

What Is Linux PAM (Pluggable Authentication)

Authentication is important part of the operations systems like Linux. As Linux operating systems are multi user systems and runs a lot of services and complex scenarios they generally need robust and easy to implement complex scenarios authentication system. Linux Pluggable Authentication a.k.a. Linux PAM is very robust and dynamic authentication system. In this tutorial we will try to explain

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How to Add Ssh Keys with ssh-add In Linux?

SSH protocol provides different ways for authentication. Key based authentication is the most secure one. In order to use key based authentication we should store the key in a command place. SSH agents reads keys and uses for authentication with remote system. We can use ssh-add to store keys in a common path. Key Files Public and private keys are store

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How To Recover Data with ddrescue Command?

ddrescue is a GNU provided data recovery tool.It can copy and recover file, directory or whole hard drive. The best part of the ddrescue is it can prevent or solve read errors. Install For Ubuntu, Debian, Kali and Mint We can install ddrescue tool for deb based distributions like below. ddrescue command is provided with package name gddrescue.

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How To Delete File and Folders Completely and Securely with sdelete in Windows?

User PC and Servers process a lot of data where some of them are secret. This data may be deleted with conventional ways but this may not enough. Because file systems generally removes file metadata but continue to hold real data. Microsoft sysinternals provides sdelete or secure delete tool which can delete file data really. More information about sysinternals can

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How To Create Self Signed Root Certificate with OpenSSL

OpenSSL provides cryptographic libraries and features. We can use OpenSSL from reading DER files to generate random numbers. But one of the most used feature is creating a Self Signed Certificate. , Self Signed Certificate X509 is the certificate standard used in internet and corporate today. X509 certificates are designed to create a tree like trust hierarchy between X509 certificates.

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How To Determine and Print OpenSSL Version?

OpenSSL is very long running project which have passed a lot of versions. Newer versions provides more features, bug fixes and security patches. For example in year 2014 a serious security hole Heart Bleed discovered in OpenSSL versions and affected OpenSSL libraries are defined as versions.Following versions was vulnerable to Hear Bleed. OpenSSL 1.0.1 trough 1.0.1f inclusive OpenSSL 1.0.1g is

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How To Generate Certificate Signing Request (CSR) with OpenSSL?

OpenSSL provides different features about security and certificates. Public and Private Key cryptography also supported by OpenSSL. Websites, Firewalls and other applications uses Certificates in order to encrypt their network traffic or authenticate each other. In this tutorial we will look how to create Certificate Signing Request. Generate RSA Key Now we assume we do not have any Public and

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