Linux is a very flexible operating system that provides different options for other operating system applications users. Wine is a tool used to run Windows operating system applications like Office, Game, Desktop, Design, etc in a Linux distribution like Ubuntu, Debian, Mint, Kali, Fedora, CentOS, etc.
What Is Wine?
Wine is known as an emulator but it describes itself as Wine Is Not an Emulator. Wine is designed to run Windows applications on POSIX compatible operating system Linux, MacOS, and BSD. It is mainly called a compatibility layer which will match application system calls with the underlying operating system calls. Wine converts Windows API calls into POSIX calls and prevents disadvantages of other emulations methods.
Install Wine Emulator
Wine can be installed in different ways like distro repositories or downloading the package from wine site.
Install For Ubuntu, Mint, Kali
We can install wine for deb based distributions like Ubuntu, Mint, and Kali with the following apt command.
$ sudo apt install wine
Install For Ubuntu, Debian, Mint and Kali From Wine Repositories
If we want to install the latest version which is provided by the Wine we need to add Wine repositories to the current distribution. If our system is 64 bit we need to enable the 32-bit library by adding i386 architecture to the dpkg.
$ sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
Then we will add Wine repository key for security reasons
$ wget -nc https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/winehq.key $ sudo apt-key add winehq.key
and as the last thing, we will add the repository for the given Ubuntu or related distribution version.
|For this version:||Use this command:|
|Ubuntu 18.10||sudo apt-add-repository ‘deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ cosmic main’|
|Ubuntu 18.04Linux Mint 19.x||sudo apt-add-repository ‘deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ bionic main’|
|Ubuntu 16.04Linux Mint 18.x||sudo apt-add-repository ‘deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ xenial main’|
|Ubuntu 14.04Linux Mint 17.x||sudo apt-add-repository ‘deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ trusty main’|
Wine repository provides 3 main branch where the stable is suitable for most cases.
sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-stable
sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-devel
sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-staging
Install For Fedora, CentOS, RedHat
We can install wine from official Fedora, CentOS and RedHat repositories with the following command.
$ sudo yum install wine
Install For Fedora, CentOS, RedHat From Wine Repositories
Wine also provides repositories for the latest version. First, we will add Wine repository with the following command.
$ dnf config-manager --add-repo https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/fedora/28/winehq.repo
Then we will install wine with the following dnf package manager.
Install Windows Application with Wine
We will download the Notepad++ installer executable from the following link.
And we will start the installation with the wine by just providing the executable name with a path like below.
$ wine npp.7.6.3.Installer.exe
We will see the following Windows style Notepad installation screen.
Wine Configuration and Installed Files
After finishing the installation wine will create some configuration files. There will be also installed application executable, dll, etc. files. All these files are stored in the user’s home directory
.wine folder. We can list the content with the ls command like below.
$ ls /home/ismail/.wine
We can see that there are
dosdevices and registry files like
drive_cis used to emulate classical Windows C drive where directories like Program Files, ProgramData, users, Windows are stored.
Wine configuration can be opened with the
winecfg command which will provide configuration about Applications, Libraries, Drives etc.
Windows operating systems have different versions where some applications can work specific version. We can specify the application and working version with the Windows Version select box like below. We can also specify the default Windows version we want to emulate
Dynamically Link Libraries can be specified individually to be either builtin (provided by Wine) or native (taken from Windows or provided by the application)
We ca also specify the Graphics settings like automatically capture the mouse in full screen, allow the windows manager to decorate the windows etc. We can also specify screen resolution in dpi which is 96 dpi in this example.
Desktop related configuration can be done in the Desktop Integration pane where we can specify the Theme, Install Theme, Folders etc.
As all applications use partitions and drives to store binary files, dll’ and other data. We can specify the partitions from the drives menu change current drive or add and remove drives. Drives are matched to the target folder. By default C: drive is targeted to the
In audio part we can specify different devices for Output, Video Output, Input, Video Input etc. We can also test the current audio configuration from the
Test Sound button.
Staging pane will provide settings that are experimental and may break stuff. Make sure to reset them again in case of a problem.
This part provides information about the Wine tool. Also, we can set Windows registration information like Owner and Organization from this tab.
List Wine Supported Windows Applications
Wine has a great user base were supported and unsupported applications are documented regularly. Wine application database can be accessed from the following link https://appdb.winehq.org/ . We can also see that there is a Top-10 Platinum List where most efficient and compatible applications and especially games are listed