Linux Sudo Command Tutorial with Examples To Get Root Privileges – POFTUT

Linux Sudo Command Tutorial with Examples To Get Root Privileges

Linux sudo command is used to give root privileges to the normal users . /etc/sudoers file is used for configuration of sudo . Sudoers file provides the users who can run sudo command. Sudoers also used to limit the commands the user can run.

Run Command With Sudo

Sudo command will accept given command and look to the sudoers file. If the given user have right to run command with sudo the password will be asked. If the passwordless sudo usage is allowed the command will run with root privileges.

Now we will run cat /etc/shadow command which will list users password hashes. Normal user can not have right to print password hashes.

$ sudo cat /etc/shadow
Run Command With Sudo
Run Command With Sudo

Specify User

If we run sudo command without specifying username explicitly the current user account will be used. But we can also specify the username explicitly with -u option.

In this example we will run ls / command with user account ismail.

$ sudo -u ismail ls /

Sudoers File

Sudoers file is the database which is used by sudo command. All specified rules are applied during sudo usage. Here is the default Sudoers file.

# User privilege specification 
root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL 
# Members of the admin group may gain root privileges 
%admin ALL=(ALL) ALL 
# Allow members of group sudo to execute any command 
%sudo   ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL 
# See sudoers(5) for more information on "#include" directives: 
#includedir /etc/sudoers.d

The general syntax is very simple. We first specify the user name or group name we want to apply rules. and then we provide the commands the user can run. In this configuration file all commands can be run buy given users and groups.

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Give User Sudo Rights

We can add new rules to the sudoers file. First we will open sudoers file with following visudo command.

$ sudo visudo

We will add following line for the user mike which can run all commands.

mike    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

Give Group Sudo Rights

We can also provide a group sudo rights with the following command. The group name is operator . We add % before the group name.

%operator ALL=(ALL) ALL

Passwordless Sudo

Every time we issue sudo command we need to provide our user’s password. This may become a nightmare for regular sudo command users. We will add the NOPASSWD to the ALL part of rule.

In this example we configure sudo for user account ismail passwordless.


List Sudo Allowed Commands

Sudo command can restrict given user right to use commands. We can use -l option to list allowed commands with sudo. Actually the directories or commands allowed to run will be listed.

$ sudo -l
List Sudo Allowed Commands
List Sudo Allowed Commands

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