POFTUT – Page 105 – Linux, Windows, Security, Programming, Network Tutorials



How To Update and Upgrade Linux Kernel?

I  have Ubuntu systems and I have old kernel. I want to upgrade my Linux system kernel. How can I do that? Linux kernel can be upgraded by two ways one way is getting source code compiling and installing it. Second way is by using package manager to update kernel. We will look how to update kernel for different distributions. Keep in mind that upgrade operation needs root privileges. What...


How To Redirect Stderr To Stdout In Linux Bash?

I have an application. This application can be run from command line. This application is a bit old and requires some optional libraries but I can not find them because of this libraries are deprecated. So when running this applications they throw errors to the command line. I will save standard output of this app but I do not want to save error or warnings. How can I redirect error...


How To Change OpenSSH SSH Server Port Number In Linux?

Remote access is the main method while managing Linux systems. Remote access must be secured accordingly. OpenSSH suite which implements Ssh provides this security with server and client side. OpenSSH also provides auxiliary tools to make copying or identity management easily and securely. OpenSSH servers run by default TCP port 22. We call it generally ssh port. Ssh port number is know for the whole world so attackers can attack...


How To Check Password Strength In Linux With Cracklib?

Password security is important subject in IT. We call it password but actually it is a key to enter systems. Making authentication password-less by using key based authentication is more secure but it is not always possible. So for the password based authentication password strength is important. How Can We Make Passwords Strong Actually making passwords strong is easy. Important thing is making this as default behavior. Just typing more...


How To Set, Get and Change Bash Environment Variable?

Bash shell is used for a lot of things in Linux systems. Most of the applications run with bash. Bash is a shell but provides an environment that can be used to programming. Variables are core of the programming. Bash provides variables too. There are default variables as well as user defined variables. Get Existing Bash Environment Variables Bash provides a lot of variables by default. Those variables can be...


How To Get Ubuntu, Debian, Kali Release Version?

I have take new job and I have a lot of new Ubuntu servers to manage. There is no inventory about the Ubuntu servers. I only know that they are Ubuntu. Is there a way to get Ubuntu version of this servers? Linux Standards Base aka LSB defines standards for different Linux distributions. Ubuntu comply with LSB. In LSB complied distributions should store their release versions at /etc/lsb-release so we can simple...


How To Get File System Disk Usage In Linux?

When administrating Linux systems we can found us tracking disk usage. Linux uses different partitions to store data. There are some temp files located in /tmp or different  paths. Some applications are installed into the /opt path. So managing paths and disk usage may become hard in Linux. There are some GUI applications like KDirStat but they are useful for only GUI environments. We will look different commands in this tutorial to get disk...


How To List All Partitions Of A Disk In Linux?

Operating systems use storage or disks to save data persistently. Disks are used with partitions to manage them easily. Generally operating system and data partitions are placed separately. Home directory of the Linux is separated because a problem in the home directory like fulling do no effect to the general system. Modern Linux system use a lot of partitions. And here is the question How can I list partitions exists...


How To Get Linux Kernel Version?

Linux kernel is the core of the Linux based operating systems we call them simply Linux. But sometimes they called Linux Distributions. Kernel initialize system with hardware. Manages hardware to provide services for upper layer operating system application. Kernel do memory management which means allot memory for applications or frees the memory. Manages processes by creating, forking or killing them. Now some little Linux kernel history. Release History 1.0 kernel...


How To Get Centos, Fedora, Red Hat Release Version?

CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat are similar distibutions. Actually Red Hat supports other distributions. In this case how can I get release version of CentOS, Red Hat, Fedora. It is ver easy actually. These distributions holds release version related information in their /etc/redhat-release file. So simple echoing will give release information. Get Release Information From redhat-release Simple print this file into terminal

CentOS is the distribution name 7 is major version number which is...

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